Questionnaires have long been used to evaluate user interfaces (Root & Draper, 1983). Questionnaires have also long been used in electronic form (Perlman, 1985). For a handful of questionnaires specifically designed to assess aspects of usability, the validity and/or reliability have been established, including some in the following table, some of which are discussed in Chapter 6 of Tullis & Albert, 2008.
|QUIS||Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction||Chin et al, 1988||Maryland||27 questions|
|PUEU||Perceived Usefulness and Ease of Use||Davis, 1989||IBM||12 questions|
|NAU||Nielsen's Attributes of Usability||Nielsen, 1993||Bellcore||5 attributes|
|NHE||Nielsen's Heuristic Evaluation||Nielsen, 1993||Bellcore||10 heuristics|
|CSUQ||Computer System Usability Questionnaire||Lewis, 1995||IBM||19 questions|
|ASQ||After Scenario Questionnaire||Lewis, 1995||IBM||3 questions|
|PHUE||Practical Heuristics for Usability Evaluation||Perlman, 1997||OSU||13 heuristics|
|PUTQ||Purdue Usability Testing Questionnaire||Lin et al, 1997||Purdue||100 questions|
|USE||USE Questionnaire||Lund, 2001||Sapient||30 questions|
There are other questionnaires, including instruments from the HFRG (Human Factors Research Group):
Also, see LaLomia & Sidowski, 1990, 1991, 1993 for reviews of measurements of satisfaction, literacy, aptitude, attitude, and anxiety.
NetRaker (netraker.com) once provided online usability evaluation, with a free trial version. Now there are many online survey services, most offering free simple surveys or trial periods:
Note: Although these instruments are online, many are copyrighted and some require a fee for non-educational use. See the references at the end of each form for more information.
These questionnaires are similar in format, so a Web-based system to present them has been developed (as seen in the Example links above). The system, quest.cgi, is a perl-based (version 4 or 5) CGI script that presents a form for a questionnaire and emails data to a specifiable address. Many options for the format of the questionnaire are read from the incoming form data, so a surveyor can adapt an existing questionnaire (although in ways that may change the validity or reliability of the standard forms of the questionnaires). The rest of this document describes how to use the standard forms of the surveys and how to adapt them.
form=QUIS form=CSUQ form=PUEU form=PUTQ
The following options can be supplied as form data or on the URL. The default values of the options depend on which form is in use. The default or modified values are kept in the HTML as hidden values; they can be viewed by looking at the HTML page source.
Here is an example mail message with questionnaire data.
From garyperlman.com Mon Oct 5 12:47:00 1998 Date: Mon, 5 Oct 1998 12:46:59 -0400 Subject: quest.cgi: Questionnaire System Evaluation Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (quest.cgi) Apparently-To: firstname.lastname@example.org system=quest.cgi date=98-10-05 12:46:58 comment=I like the generalization of this system.<br>Thanks. q1=1 q2=0 q3=2 q4=1 q5=1 q6=0 q7=-1 c7=I found the concept novel & difficult to grok. q8=0 q9=NA q10=0 q11=-1 q12=-1 q13=0 q14=0 q15=1 q16=1 q17=1 q18=2 c18=It has more than expected, and yet, not enough. Sigh. q19=2 negative1=no analysis tools negative2=hard to completely customize negative3=questionnaire terminology does not closely match my domain positive1=nice looking forms positive2=lots of options positive3=based on established questionnaires positive4=lets me automate data collection